Friday, December 13, 2019

Satanism Free Essays

string(256) " suggests that a supernatural adversary within the divine court had managed to penetrate the royal house and led the king himself into sin: â€Å"Satan stood up against Israel and incited David to number the people† \( Pagels 1995: 42-43, based on 1 Chron\." Satanism may signify an organized belief system or religion such as the Church of Satan. It may be seen just as a vague and dramatized concept of extreme insurgence against Western norms and conventions such as the so-called â€Å"Satanism† exhibited by some rock musicians. It may be a mythological sign of medieval religious thinking that still lingers in contemporary times. We will write a custom essay sample on Satanism or any similar topic only for you Order Now It may also be a deviant practice used to daunt and control others through ritual abuse (Francis King, 1989b). If Satanism is linked with ritual abuse, one can also say with assurance that not all ritual abuse is Satanic. Many of these abusive occurrences have been present in societies or under conditions where Satan is not a renowned spiritual or demonic entity. In earlier times, it was not uncommon for Western scholars and travelers to sometimes attribute the influence of Satan to primitive religious practices, which to them appeared to be idolatrous or violent. Even now, one occasionally hears the concept that if something is not Christian, it is the effect of Satan’s power or seductiveness. The predecessors of Satanism can be found in ancient religions in which gods were worshipped, not because of their intrinsic goodness, but as of their perceived power. For example, the ancient Greek and Roman gods were such an amoral grouping of deities. Few showed many venerable character traits. These gods were often represented with all the foibles and veniality of mere mortals. Many of the cults dedicated to such gods and goddesses allegedly involved traumatizing rituals (e. g. , the mystery cults). On the other hand, some religions particularly worshipped and supplicated obviously evil deities. In other cases, what appears to be the adoration of an â€Å"evil deity† may simply symbolize the worship of a spiritual entity that no longer enjoys privileged status? There are examples in history in which a culture’s demons were in fact past divinities, no longer revered, and sometimes given new and less striking roles. Such revolutions amongst the gods sometimes resulted from conquests, whereupon the new gods of the conquerors take the place formerly held by the gods of the conquered. In other instances, evil can be revered or worshipped outright. In cultures in which Christianity is established one might presume that the worship of evil would involve some devotion to Lucifer or Satan, the primary names given to the Euro-American spiritual depiction of evil. To many traditional Christians, Satan and Lucifer are equal but different names for the same demon. However, numerous theologians make the peculiarity that Lucifer is the name of Satan before his fall. The origins of Satanism are positively as obscure as any other occult belief system. One can never be specifically certain when such practices started. Yet, some of the historical accounts of Satanism in Europe may explain some of the evolution of thinking about Satanism. The history of Satanism can be traced to a variety of possible sources: (1) European witchcraft, sorcery, and shamanism, (2) Gnostic-derived religions (e. . , the Cathari) which viewed the established Church as an tyrannical adversary, (3) the general traditions of Western occultism (which are often seen as encircling a â€Å"dark† or â€Å"left-handed path†) and (4) what Francis King calls â€Å"the bad divinity of a minority of Roman Catholic priests† (Francis King , 1989b, p. 219 ). Though, whe n Satan was invented, he was found everywhere. For instance, Satan was attached to Adam and Eve as a sibling rivalry between Satan and the younger creatures of God. This combination of human and celestial opponents of God lastly culminated in the formative stages of the Antichrist legend, which speaks of the human embodiment of Satan (McGinn 1994: 10, 22-25; Pagels 1995: 43, 49; Russell 1977: 188-89). While the orthodox text shared some ideas of the dualistic conflict, particularly in Ezra’s formulations, Satan obtained a key role in the conventional worldview only gradually, as an influence of the popular apocalyptic eschatology and a means in struggles for power (political or religious) between human beings ( McGinn 1994: 26). According to Elaine Pagels, Satan never shows in the Hebrew Bible as the leader of an evil empire, as a leader of antagonistic spirits who make war on God and humankind. As he first appears, Satan is not essentially evil. In the Book of Numbers and in Job he is one of God’s obedient servants, a messenger or angel. The Satan describes an adversarial role, not a particular character. The Satan was any one of the angels sent by God for the explicit purpose of blocking or obstructing human activity; the root Satan means â€Å"one who opposes, obstructs, or acts as adversary†; the Greek term diabolos means â€Å"one who throws somewhat across one’s path. So if the path is bad, an obstruction is good: Satan may simply have been sent by the Lord to protect a person from worse harm (Pagels 1995: 39-40, based, e. g. , on Numbers 22: 23-25). Job’s Satan takes a more adversarial role; Satan’s special role in the blissful court is that of a kind of roving inte lligence agent, like those whom numerous Jews of the time would have known and disliked from the king of Persia’s complex system of secret police and intelligence officers. These agents roamed the realm looking for signs of infidelity amongst the people. God boasts to Satan concerning one of his most loyal subjects; Satan then challenges the Lord to put Job to the test. Job withstands the tests, and the Lord restores the affluences of Job giving him twice as much as he had before (Pagels 1995: 41, based on Job 2: 3, 42: 10). Around the time Job was written c. 550 B. C. E. , other biblical writers invoked Satan to account for sharing out within Israel. One court historian slips Satan into an account regarding the origin of census taking, which King David introduced into Israel c. 1000 B. C. E. or the point of instituting taxation, which aroused fervent and immediate opposition. Aim on condemning David’s action without condemning the king openly, the author of 1 Chronicles suggests that a supernatural adversary within the divine court had managed to penetrate the royal house and led the king himself into sin: â€Å"Satan stood up against Israel and incited David to number the people† ( Pagels 1995: 42-43, based on 1 Chron . You read "Satanism" in category "Papers" 21:1). Most societies have a variety of demons, spirits, or gods, which are morally ambivalent that is to say, the gods can be kind or unkind to humankind. One might argue that this amoral or dimoral polytheism fits the human experience of the universe well: we see things happening mysteriously, without reason, for good or ill, and call it fate, chance, or an â€Å"act of God. † Few religions have one figure particularly symbolizing evil, although Buddha’s tempter Mara comes close. No religion has a single individual personifying evil except those of the Jewish-Christian-Muslim (and â€Å"Zoroastrian†) tradition, which have Satan or the Devil. The problem of evil faces every worldview, but none so expressively as great monotheistic religions. Theologically the problem is just stated. God is all-powerful and all-good. But an all-powerful, all-good God would not permit evil in the cosmos he creates. Therefore evil cannot exist. But we view that evil exists. We are therefore forced to refuse the existence of God (at least as great monotheistic religions define it) or meet the criteria of our definition. If we choose the latter, we can save God’s pure goodness by restraining his omnipotence, or else save his power by qualifying his goodness. This is a sharp theological choice; few theologians choose to face it that overtly. To avoid this choice, a variety of strategies have been working over the millennia. One solution, however unacceptable philosophically, is to resort to the notion of a spiritual power aggressive to God, such as Satan. The Old Testament has comparatively few references to Satan as a personality. Most Hebrew thought before the second century B. C. E. established destruction and suffering as originating in God’s inscrutable will. But some Old Testament passages lent themselves to an interpretation that unexplained spiritual powers, subordinate to a God, often did disparaging things. In some passages — most radically in the Book of Job — this power is portrayed as having a self-governing, malevolent existence. The idea of the Devil, very fuzzy in the Old Testament, becomes clear and pointed in the era from the second century B. C. E. to the second century C. E. One reason is the power of Iranian dualism. The ancient Iranian religion of Mazdaism (sometimes called Zoroastrianism) had its origins in the teachings of Zarathushtra, a prophet whose dates are unknown. It is a dualist religion, elucidating evil by positing a frequent cosmic warfare between the God of Light and the God of Darkness. Mazdaism had some influence in Babylonia, where Hebrew in Exile was liberated by Iranian Shah Cyrus. A propensity toward dualism seems also to have grown indigenously amongst Jews, as they developed a darker view of the world throughout the times they were invaded, enslaved, and persecuted by a diversity of conquerors — Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, and finally Romans. The Jews reacted to this anguish partly by blaming it on their own sins (a stance of the great prophets), but partially by blaming exterior forces. The Devil or his deputies were the influential spirits backing evil Gentiles against the Chosen People. Some Jewish sects, such as the Essenes, conceived (like the Mazdaists) of a vast extraterrestrial warfare between the Lord of Light and the Prince of Darkness, a warfare in which each nation and each person was called to stand on one side or the other. For Jewish apocalyptic, the cosmic struggle was coming to its end; there would be one last, vast war between sons of dusk and sons of light, and then the good God would triumph everlastingly. In the context of this profoundly dualistic Jewish thought, Christianity came into being. Ideas similar to those of apocalyptic writers emerge in the Christian Gospels, notably the Gospel of John, with its images of light against darkness, in miracle stories of Jesus’ capability to cast out and defeat demons and their leader the Devil, and in the Book of Revelation (The Apocalypse). However, after the obliteration of Jerusalem by Romans in 70 C. E. , and the diaspora of the Jews, Pharisees were left as the surviving leading Jewish group. Their custom downplayed Satan’s power so much that he infrequently appears in works of the rabbis, though he does retain a presence in Jewish folklore. Although Judaism downplayed Satan’s power, Messianic trends that faded in Judaism after 70 C. E. remained strong in Christianity. For Christianity, Jesus was the Messiah. In Christian thought, God is good. Opposed by the Devil, he sends Jesus his Messiah to obliterate the Devil’s power. Unlike many Jewish sects, such as the Zealots, Christians supposed that the Messiah was not a military victory over Satan and gentile nations, but to a certain extent the Suffering Servant, who took upon himself all sins of the people and, in dying for them, broke Satan’s power. Almost all early Christian writers granted Satan great power all through the cosmos and also in the life of each human. Christ and Satan vie for each soul, and each person should choose between them. Like Judaism, Christianity is a monotheistic religion. But by using the Devil to explicate the existence of evil, some early Christian groups, such as Gnostic sects of the first two centuries C. E. , pulled powerfully in the way of dualism. For them, Satan was an anti-God of enormous power. This power was to be fought, banished, and struggled against. But as it was so vast, Satan’s power could also be influenced, harnessed to one’s own will, even, in extreme cases, worshipped. There was no planned Satanism in early Christianity, but some Gnostic sects seem to have verged on it by working orgiastic rites. In the l5th-century, French baron and onetime marshal of France, Gilles de Rais, was found to have affianced in numerous mortal and sadistic acts, some of which were alleged to be associated with strange rituals in which he was assisted by Francesco Prelatti, a Florentine priest and occultist. Gilles de Rais was noted to be a man whose temperament and personality seemed to be extremely erratic at different times. Sometimes noted for his kindness, he was notable for his bravery in his military assistance of Joan of Arc. However, there was a great deal of dependable testimony provided by witnesses as well as material substantiation pointing to his guilt. According to Francis King, Satanism was adequately prevalent in 16th- and l7th-century France that its presence was noted by the police: It is difficult to know how widespread such Satanist activities were among the nonmonastic clergy of the middle Ages, but they seem to have become common in the 16th and17th centuries. Exactly how common, no one knows, but if the rest of Catholic Europe was anything like the ecclesiastical underworld of Paris at that time, then they were very common indeed. For in France Satanism had attained the status of big business, its practitioners forming a kind of occult Mafia, a noisome octopus with tentacles which reached into almost every segment of Parisian society and which was uncovered by Nicolas de la Reynie, the Police Commissioner of Paris. (Francis King, 1989b, pp. 219 – 220) The books of Church of Satan founder Anton LaVey (1969) were actually strongly influenced by this â€Å"occult tradition. † (LaVey also popularized the â€Å"satanic pentagram,† the five-pointed star with one point downward and the head of a goat overlaid. There is a temptation to dismiss antisatanists’ claims as illusive; as sociologist Marcello Truzzi says, â€Å"Satanists are better scapegoats than Jews, because they don’t exist (in Lyons, 1988:179). Though the vast conspiracy criticized by the antisatanist campaign may be exaggerated, Satanists do exist; there are members of controlled Satanist churches in our society. These Satanist groups are significant to the antisatanist movement: they provide a â€Å"kernel of truth† that antisatanists can expose. Groups such as Anton LaVey’s Church of Satan â€Å"prove† that the satanic threat exists. The Church of Satan is not large; estimates range from 2000 to 5000 active members (Melton 1986:77; Lyons 1988:115). Still, the publicity showered on LaVey since he established his San Francisco church in 1966 has made him and his group a part of American popular culture. Almost everyone knows about LaVey’s church, even though it is quite small. What the Church lacks in size it has made up for in attention paid to it as well as its activities. Anton LaVey, a bright character with a flair for the dramatic, gained substantial publicity by performing satanic weddings of famous people, satanic baptisms of children, and satanic last rights for a sailor member who died — all intentionally staged as media events. LaVey sought celebrities as members, and for a time claimed such stars as Sammy Davis, Jr. and Jayne Mansfield as dynamic participants, gaining national attention as a result (Lyons 1988). There is substantial debate about what the Church of Satan stands for, and what its members believe. Some analysts treat the Church as a spoof, intentionally designed to upset Christians. Others take it more critically, and look to LaVey’s writings, such as his The Satanic Bible (LaVey 1969), to understand his philosophy. The church actively rejects spirituality and mysticism of any sort; it espouses an exclusive, materialist, and essentially atheistic philosophy. â€Å"Satan constitutes a worship of one’s own ego†¦. In its major features, the Church of Satan takes a position of Extreme Machiavellianism and cynical-realism on the way to the nature of man†¦. Its major feature†¦ is its emphasis upon the significance of myth and magic and upon their collision in a world of people who can still be influenced through such beliefs and emotions. This Satanist then is the ultimate pragmatist†. (Truzzi 1974:220) Moody ( 1974) discusses the Church of Satan’s redefinition of Christianity’s seven fatal sins — greed, pride, envy, anger, greed, lust, and sloth — as virtues within satanic religion. Melton (1988:145) describes satanic churches’ relationship to Christianity: Satanism is rationally subsequent to Christianity and draws on it in representing an overthrow of the Christian deity approving of his adversary. It stands in polemical relation to Christianity and†¦ Uses Christian elements, which are changed and given new meaning. Although LaVey’s Church of Satan is the most observable satanic church, others exist. The Temple of Set, a small off-shoot group planned by Michael Aquino, a former disciple of LaVey, has attracted attention (Melton 1989:805; Lyons 1988:125). The small size of these organized satanic groups is less significant than the cultural meaning attached to them. As a radical rejection of Christian culture, they are representatively significant. Their very presence has put in to the concern about Satanism in America. Satan stories were connected to practical and political issues. As Russell (1977: 222) properly maintains, the figure of Satan in the New Testament is understandable only while it is seen as the counterpart or counter principle of Christ; accordingly, Russell adds, â€Å"the New Testament teaches that the Kingdom of God is at war with the Kingdom of the Devil†. Furthermore, Pagels documents, the vision of enormous struggle were developed by sectarian groups like the Essenes as they struggled against the forces they saw ranged against them. The dualistic cosmology was traited as split society, where sons of light, allied with the angels, and sons of darkness, in league with the control of evil, were in violent conflict. Pagels further retains that followers of Jesus adopted the same prototype in their campaigns. According to Pagels, Mark tells the story of Jesus as the disagreement between God’s spirit and the power of Satan. Mark underlines that Jesus encountered this opposition not simply from evil spirit but from evil people as well. Mark’s Satan is not an antagonistic power assailing Israel from outside the community but the source and symbol of conflict within the community (Pagels 1995: 12, 17, 34, 38; based on Mark 3: 23-27, 16: 5-7). Satan is described as the embodiment of pure evil. Such a Satanic theology would feature goodness to the Judeo-Christian God, but Satanists worship Satan as perceived to be more powerful or because the cultist might view himself or herself as being past redemption by a benign deity. In this system of thinking, goodness itself is typified as a weak, ineffective, and futile goal. Spence describes a similar dichotomy in views of Satanism and Luciferianism although he defines his terms slightly differently: Concerning the cults of Lucifer, much discrimination is required in dealing with this aspect, the bulk of the literature on the subject being manifestly imaginative and often willfully misleading. The members of the church of Lucifer are of two groups, those who regard the deity they adore as the evil principle, thus approximating to the standpoint of the Satanists, and those who look upon him as the true god in opposition to Adonai or Jehovah, whom they regard as an evil deity who has, with fiendish ingenuity, miscreated the world of man to the detriment of humanity. . (http://www. satanservice. org/propaganda/acad. 80sa. txt ) Though, in contemporary world, satanic symbols and themes are observable and popular features of music, literature, and movies. Increasing numbers of reported survivors are coming forward to assert they are victims of such cults. Are these reports just rumors or fantasies, or are people being harmed by ritual abuse? Unless we seriously consider these reports, we will never know for certain. How to cite Satanism, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Commonwealth Bank of Australia and Emerging Markets- MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theCommonwealth Bank of Australia and Emerging Markets. Answer: Emerging Market For The Commonwealth Bank Of Australia Could Expand Its Business Into. Emerging markets are the developing countries or the emerging economies. They are countries that are experiencing a rapid industrialization, modernization, and a fast economic growth hence adopting a free market. As compared to the developed countries like Germany, Japan, Italy and the United States of America, the emerging markets have a lower-than-average per capita income (Cavusgil, Riesenberger, Rammal Rose, 2015). In the recent years, despite the fact that these countries represent a low-cost manufacturing and a high-risk business environment, they have started to pose a competitive challenge to the so-called advanced economies due to the evolving of their infrastructures and legal systems. Some of the developing countries or the emerging markets include the following; Brazil, Egypt, Chile, Morocco, Kenya, China, Mexico, South Korea, Tanzania, Ukraine, Uganda, and Nigeria. The significance of the emerging markets is that they oblige growth in the worldwide economy. The Commonwealth Bank of Australia should expand its business into, for instance, Kenya as an emerging market. For the recent years, mobile banking in Kenya is on a rising note. According to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, the use of mobile financial services is more popular amongst the Kenyans which increased in the year 2016 with 18% of the population use MShwari and KCB M-Pesa the mobile banking services in Kenya. The use of the mobile banking service saw an increase of 10% since the year 2013 (Webcache.googleusercontent.com, 2017). For this reason, the Commonwealth Bank of Australia should expand its business of mobile banking into Kenya. Commonwealth Bank of Australia will use the acquisition of a financial technology TYME to expand its mobile banking services in Kenya since the propagation of cell phones is posing a big challenge to the method of traditional banking in which Kenya is the world-leading mobile-money system. A Strategy, The Commonwealth Bank Of Australia, Should Use To Enter Into The Mobile Banking System In Kenya. In trying to venture into the emerging markets, the Commonwealth Bank of Australia should come up with creative strategies to enable them to achieve their goals and objectives in the developing countries. By entering the mobile banking system in Kenya, the CBA should partner with the available and qualified companies that offer the mobile banking services. The primary mobile banking service providers in Kenya are Safaricom in which their service is branded as M-Pesa and Airtel in which their service is branded as Airtel Money. In this case, CBA with its acquisition of TYME should seek an alliance with these two companies to access the local market knowledge and establish their digital banking ecosystems to serve their clients in Kenya. The partnership strategy employed by the Commonwealth Bank of Australia will ensure that there is an opportunity to improve the bank's customer base and give them an opportunity to acquire more competitive advantages. Although there are risks and challenges in the emerging markets that affect the international market, the CBA bank will make sure that they utilize this strategy correctly to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the mobile banking system in Kenya. The partnership strategy will be a success if only there is clear communication between the two alliances, collaboration, commitment and trust amongst them. Although venturing into the emerging markets is challenging, the Commonwealth Bank should use this strategy to fill the gaps in the mobile banking system in Kenya. References Cavusgil, S. Tamer, Knight, G, Riesenberger, J.R.,Rammal, H. and Rose, E. 2015. International Business: the New Realities, 2ND Edn, Pearson Australia, Melbourne Vic. Nicoletti, B. (2014). Mobile banking: evolution or revolution? https://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1765630. Summers, J. and Smith, B. 2014, Communications Skills Handbook, 4th edition, John Wiley Sons Australia, Milton. Webcache.googleusercontent.com. (2017). 2016 FinAccess. [online] Available at: https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:5GwdzrXbAJkJ:www.knbs.or.ke/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_phocadownload%26view%3Dcategory%26download%3D839:finaccess-2016-survey-report%26id%3D121:rare-copies%26Itemid%3D599+cd=1hl=enct=clnkclient=firefox-b-ab [Accessed 26 May 2017].

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Rational Anarchism Essays - Anti-capitalism, Anti-fascism

Rational Anarchism The idea of rational anarchism is the idea that every human being is responsible for their actions. The one person who is doing the actions. The only one who can take the blame. This is an idea of a character in The Moon is a Harsh Mistress. He believes that no matter how it boils down, the person who the actions is responsible for what they did. There are some cases where I am for this idea and there are some cases were I am against it. I believe that people are responsible for their actions but not all of them. They may be responsible for their actions but it wasnt their choice to carry out the action. Ultimately, the responsibility is theirs. If you were a pilot that carried nukes and the army demanded you to drop the bomb on a defenseless village. If you had a family back home that was living off your pay check and you decided not to bomb the target, your whole family would have to pay for what you thought was the right thing to do. What would the right choice be? To let your family suffer because you thought is it was wrong to bomb a certain place? This is like making someone choose between one form of torture or another, it doesnt really matter which one you pick, you get hurt somehow in the end. Another example is when you dont know that what you doing is wrong. Say you grew up on a different planet were it was accepta ble to kill the weak people who had deformities. If you were to relocate to another place were it was wrong to kill the weak and you kill a person the first day you get there before you learn anything about any laws or anything. Would that person be responsible for their actions? He wouldnt the faintest idea of the laws in his new environment. It could have been just his natural instincts telling him to do what he does at home. I would think that was no one's fault. You could take this topic to an extreme and ask what if someone was hypnotized. If a person is hypnotized and he is told to kill someone, whos fault would that be? If a true rational anarchism were to look at a scenario like this, I think they would be puzzled at the problem that this creates. It could not be the mans fault, for he was hypnotized but he still did the action of killing. But the man who hypnotized him is partly to blame, because he hypnotized the man and commanded him to murder someone. Since the true rational anarchist says that you cant share or split blame, whose fault would it be and why? That is what puzzles me and leaves me partly in favor of this notion and partly against it. I guess that all people are responsible for their actions but sometime those actions can be influenced by other factors, like friends, family and bosses. This would be just like peer pressure: you dont want to but you are in a way forced to even if you dont relize it. If a boss asks you to work on the weekend, you may not want to but you know you will make a bad impression if you dont. this will very from friend to family but there will be some for of peer pressure to make you do something you didnt want to do. I do, on the other, hand believe in some parts of Rational anarchism. People are responsible for what they do. If I hit my brother, I would be responsible for what I did. I think there is another part of rational anarchism: for every action you carry out there will be a consequence. Using the example above, if I hit my brother, he will either hit me back or tell my mom and either way, I will be hurt or get in trouble. I think no matter what has been done, there will be consequences, no matter if the action is good or bad. If you do something good you will probably get something good,

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on Exposure

‘Exposure’ Exposure is the basic process through which a photograph is taken. It is the exposing the light sensitive film to light, therefor burning an image to be developed. The ability to create the perfect exposure, is the ability to control the light exposure to the film. How the photograph turns out is controlled by several factors, i.e., the intensity of the light; the sensitivity of the film; and the duration for which the film is exposed to the light. These factors all relate to each other, and thus determine if the film will be too bright, to dark, over or under-exposed. ISO(ASA) The first of these settings is ASA or ISO. This is the speed of the film and determines its sensitivity. For proper exposure, the ASA should always be set to the speed of the film that you are using, e.g., 400 (standard). ASA stands for American Standards Authority, and ISO stands for International Standards Organisation. These are the scales on which the films are graded. The highest grade on this scale is 3200, this being rarely used. The grain of the resulting image is effected by the ISO. It also greatly effects the contrast of the image. The lower the ISO, the more light required to correctly expose the film. Films with a high ISO can have a quicker shutter speed or a higher aperture because they require less light. Aperture. The aperture is another important factor of a correct exposure. It is controlled by a dial on the lens, and itself controls the amount of light let through by the lens. Similar to the iris of the human eye, the aperture opens and closes to correctly concentrate the light on the film. The scale aperture is measured on is F-stops. When the camera’s aperture is set at a high F-stop, less light is allowed into the film. This would be the correct procedure if the photograph was being taken in a bright environment. If there is little light, however, the aperture should be at a low setting so as to allow the... Free Essays on Exposure Free Essays on Exposure ‘Exposure’ Exposure is the basic process through which a photograph is taken. It is the exposing the light sensitive film to light, therefor burning an image to be developed. The ability to create the perfect exposure, is the ability to control the light exposure to the film. How the photograph turns out is controlled by several factors, i.e., the intensity of the light; the sensitivity of the film; and the duration for which the film is exposed to the light. These factors all relate to each other, and thus determine if the film will be too bright, to dark, over or under-exposed. ISO(ASA) The first of these settings is ASA or ISO. This is the speed of the film and determines its sensitivity. For proper exposure, the ASA should always be set to the speed of the film that you are using, e.g., 400 (standard). ASA stands for American Standards Authority, and ISO stands for International Standards Organisation. These are the scales on which the films are graded. The highest grade on this scale is 3200, this being rarely used. The grain of the resulting image is effected by the ISO. It also greatly effects the contrast of the image. The lower the ISO, the more light required to correctly expose the film. Films with a high ISO can have a quicker shutter speed or a higher aperture because they require less light. Aperture. The aperture is another important factor of a correct exposure. It is controlled by a dial on the lens, and itself controls the amount of light let through by the lens. Similar to the iris of the human eye, the aperture opens and closes to correctly concentrate the light on the film. The scale aperture is measured on is F-stops. When the camera’s aperture is set at a high F-stop, less light is allowed into the film. This would be the correct procedure if the photograph was being taken in a bright environment. If there is little light, however, the aperture should be at a low setting so as to allow the...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The quantitative questionnaire method versus the qualitative focus Essay

The quantitative questionnaire method versus the qualitative focus group method - Essay Example Within data collection, there are two different methods to ascertain information. These include the quantitative questionnaire method and the qualitative focus group method. Both of these aim to find out the pertinent details with the research that is being conducted yet these are inherently different in their intent and purpose. The reason for this is that one of these, i.e. questionnaire brings out just numbers and information while the focus group methodology aims to explore how and why these numbers or information sets have come up from and what are the exact reasons behind the very same. The manner in which questionnaires and focus groups are seen as significant have brought to the fore the importance of understanding how and where to employ them and what kind of research knowledge would be handy for making use of either of these methodologies. Without a doubt, both quantitative questionnaire method and the qualitative focus group methodology make use of the sample which remains an imperative tangent of any research, be it marketing or business. For the extent of this paper, focus would be on these two different tools, both of which come under different headings – quantitative and qualitative. The data collection remains an important part of any research which is being completed in order to satisfy a need or requirement. It is for this reason that data collection is given the significance as it studies how research will be used and what are the pros and cons to diversify the basis and extent of this research which has been employed. Since data collection always comes about when a sample has been chosen, it is necessary that the respondents are told exactly what their collection would do in order to bring about a research in the first place. If this research helps the business to grow as a whole, then there is no reason why this research should not be conducted. In fact recent research studies have depicted and highlighted the fact that data collecti on and indeed the selection of samples would make the entire research process a sure success, and there are reasons available to provide evidence for the same (Patzer 1996). One must understand that sample selection is always a random act and it should not be a forceful measure because there are certain sets of audiences which would not appreciate the idea of being researched upon and taken within the sample itself. Hence it is always a good exercise to think of the sample as being comprehensive and complete from all sides, without any bias or prejudices whatsoever. Data collection is therefore dependent on the sample selection measures which are deemed as important because this will bring in the much needed value and quality within the research process and also make it look more real and genuine. The research studies which are being conducted in this day and age are usually imaginary and depend a great deal on how people manage time constraints. If proper understanding and analysis regimes are followed, this research would bear fruit and make the whole exercise of conducting the said research an important one (Bryman 2001). A questionnaire is basically a research instrument which includes a series of questions in order to gather information from the prospective respondents. The questionnaires are usually designed for statistical analysis of the responses which have been envisaged. This form of data collection was invented by Sir Francis Galton. These questionnaires are comparatively different from the surveys as these are cheap in cost and hence do not require that much effort from the questioner when one compares these questionnaires with telephone surveys or even verbal ones. The respondents in essence have standardized responses/answers which are simple and easy to collect and combine data. For the sake of the users, this collection of data might just be very frustrating as the respondents have to read the questions and hence answer them accordingly. It ha s been noted

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Warehousing and Inventory Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Warehousing and Inventory Management - Essay Example A computerized management system is the best option. Any WMS must ensure an effective and efficient management of inventory. A WMS aims at controlling and storing of inventory in the warehouse. This process is closely linked to transactions such as putting away and picking, receiving and shipping. WMS also help in directing and optimizing inventory put-away based on real-time information concerning status of bin utilization. WMS usually make use of data capture facilities such as wireless LANs, RFID, mobile computers, and barcode readers. Data collection is followed by either batch synchronization or wireless transmission to a central database. This can then give useful reports about the status of inventory in the warehouse. WMSs aim at providing automated procedures of handling receipt and returns of inventory, modelling and managing logical representation of the warehouse, managing inventory within the store and enabling a seamless link to order processing. WMSs help in controlling the movement and storage of materials within a warehouse. They data-track inventory during production and interpret between existing ERP and WMS systems Warehouse management should be incorporated with the rest of the business to help in streamlining operations, reducing costs and speeding up order fulfilment. Setting up of a criterion to help in guiding the most efficient put away locations, bin quantities, and pick patterns is very vital in warehouse management. Any warehouse management practice should help in reducing bottlenecks and multiple handling. Materials handling information should be input directly from the warehouse to assist in reducing inefficiency and data handling redundancy (Frazelle, 2001). Pick and pack process in a warehouse should be automatically updated. This ensures accurate and timely fulfilling of orders and quickly responding to status inquiry. The warehouse management should decide on the sophistication level of their management system confidently. It should adapt to new volumes, technologies, products and processes with ease. It should also be at par with the growth of the business (Warman, 1971). Integration of other business operations such as manufacturing and order processing with warehouse helps in optimizing the layout, handling multiple orders, managing replenishment, and proper utilizing of space. The warehouse manager should incorporate various pick prioritization methods that include FIFO, FEFO and LILO into directed movement, pick and put away decisions (Frazelle, 2001). All credit or debit inventory records should be kept separate from sales, source documents and purchase receipts. This will help in maintaining accurate inventory records one when one needs to access records for display and testing among other operational needs. The warehouse manager should keep a visible inventory to help in increasing the efficiency and accuracy of management (Jenkins, 1968). To help in item tracking serial numbers should be used to help in determining where the products were bought, processed and sold. This will help in reducing waste and limiting carriage of expired stock via FEFO handling. Warehouse management

Monday, November 18, 2019

Cause and Effect;What would be the effects of dropping out of high Essay

Cause and Effect;What would be the effects of dropping out of high school - Essay Example High school dropouts will hardly provide any meaningful skills to the job market and therefore, not able to secure good jobs. This causes a sharp drop in living standards among high school dropouts. Lack of education means lack of skills needed by most employers if not all. This leaves high school dropouts with no choice than to do the unskilled jobs that are lowly paid. Whereas this is a loss to the employment sector, most of the loss occurs to the dropouts since they forego the gratification that comes with professional jobs. Such dropouts can hardly support their families with the little income they have. More notably, they are most likely to create a poor generation since their family foundations are already economically unstable. With the increasing problems associated with global economic crisis, high school dropouts are most likely to face overwhelming competition and difficult living conditions. US government has to make a huge budgetary allocation every year in aid for the poor families that cannot support themselves. A great number of high school dropouts add to this burden every year. This is because as they can hardly support themselves economically. Additionally, they nurture families that are not economically stable thereby adding more pressure to the already heavily burdened government spending. For instance, the government has to struggle raising funds to support a healthcare program for the poor even when the poor, such as high school dropouts, cannot afford to contribute financially to the program. Poor living conditions and lack of livelihood is a prerequisite to criminal activities. Criminal activities are most likely to be more prevalent among high school dropouts due to inability to generate enough income. High school dropouts hardly have any option apart from engaging in criminal activities due to the overwhelming competition in the modern society. More notably, high school dropouts are, most certainly, likely to associate with